4. Sistematica della vegetazione marina

 

La sistematica o sintassonomia (quella delle specie è idiotassonomia) della vegetazione marina è stata definita in maniera completa solo recentemente e soltanto per il Mediterraneo presso la Scuola di Catania (del Prof. Giaccone).

La sua introduzione risale a Braun-Blanquet, che si occupò della vegetazione ad Angiosperme marine. Importanti contributi sono stati portati da Molinier (sulla vegetazione della Corsica) e da Pignatti (sulla vegetazione della Laguna Veneta). Pochi altri contributi fitosociologici al di fuori del Mediterraneo sono stati realizzati per il Mare del Nord (da Den Hartog) e per le Isole Canarie (da Gil Rodriguez et al., 1980).

 

 

 

 

Fonti principali:

Giaccone G., Alongi G., Cossu a., Di Geronimo R. & Serio D. (1993) - La vegetazione marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: I. Sopralitorale e mesolitorale. Proposte di aggiornamento. Boll. Acc. Gioenia Sci. Nat., Catania, 26 (341): 145-172

Giaccone G., Alongi G., Pizzuto F., Cossu A. (1994) - La vegetazione marina bentonica fotofila del Mediterraneo: II. Infralitorale e Circalitorale. Proposte di aggiornamento. Boll. Acc. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania, 27: 111-157

Giaccone G., Alongi G., Pizzuto F., Cossu A. (1994) - La vegetazione marina bentonica sciafila del Mediterraneo: III. Infralitorale e Circalitorale. Proposte di aggiornamento. Boll. Acc. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania, 27: 201-227

Giaccone G. & Di Martino V. (1997) - Inquadramento fitosociologico ed ecologia della vegetazione a caulerpe in Mediterraneo. Atti del Convegno S.O.S. Caulerpa ? Introduzione di nuove specie nel Mediterraneo e compatibilità con quelle presenti. Cagliari 25 Novembre 1996: 69-86.

Marino G., Di Martino V., Giaccone G. 1998 (1999) - La vegetazione marina nella Penisola Maddalena (Siracusa, Sicilia S - E). Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat., Catania 31 (354): 235-287.

 


 

Sistematica della vegetazione marina del Mediterraneo

 

 

Sopralitorale e Mesolitorale. Vegetazione su fondi rocciosi e/o duri.

CLASSE: ENTOPHYSALIDETEA Giaccone 1993.

         Car. class. Brachytrichia quojii

      OrdINE: Entophysalidetalia deustae Ercegovic 1932.

                Car. ord. Microcoleus lyngbyaceus

           All. Entophysalidion deustae Ercegovic 1932.

                Car. all. Microcoleus lyngbyaceus

             1 Ass. Entophysalidetum deustae Berner 1931.

                      Car. ass. Entophysalis deusta

                              Mastigocoleum testarum

                              Calothrix crustacea

                              Verrucaria symbalana

                              Verrucaria maura

      OrdINE: BANGIETALIA ATROPURPUREAE Giaccone 1993.

                Car. ord. Hapalosporangidion macrocarpum

           All. Bangion atropurpureae Giaccone 1993.

                Car. all. Hapalosporangidion macrocarpum

             2 Ass. Bangietum atropurpureae Giaccone 1993.

                      Car. ass. Bangia atropurpurea

                              Ulothrix flacca

             3 Ass. Porphyretum leucostictae Boudouresque 1971

                      Car. ass. Porphyra leucosticta

                              Scytosiphon simplicissimus

                              Polysiphonia sertularioides

             4 Ass. Nemalio-Rissoelletum verruculosae Boudouresque 1971

                      Car. ass. Rissoella verruculosa

                              Nemalion helminthoides

                              Audouinella nemalionis

           5 Ass. Polysiphonio-Lithophylletum papillosi Marino, Di Martino e Giaccone 1999

                      Car. ass.: Lithophyllum papillosum

                              Polysiphonia opaca

                              Polysiphonia sertularioides

 

      ORDINE: RALFSIETALIA VERRUCOSAE Giaccone 1993.

                Car. ord. Ralfsia verrucosa

                         Nemoderma tingitanum

                         Gastroclonium clavatum

                         Corallina elongata

           All. Ralfsion verrucosae Giaccone 1993.

                Car. all. Ralfsia verrucosa

                        Nemoderma tingitanum

                        Gastroclonium clavatum

                        Corallina elongata

             6 Ass. Lithophylletum byssoidis Giaccone 1993.

                      Car. ass. Lithophyllum byssoides

                              Chaetomorpha mediterranea

                              Laurencia papillosa

                              Pterocladiella melanoidea

                              Lophosiphonia cristata

                              Taenioma nanum

 

           Subass. Lithophylletosum trochanteris Marino, Di Martino, Giaccone 1999

                      Sp. diff.: Lithophyllum trochanter

 

             7 Ass. Ceramio-Corallinetum elongatae Pignatti 1962

                      Car. ass. Ceramium ciliatum

                              Ceramium rubrum v. barbatum

                              Gelidium pusillum

                              Antithamnion cruciatum

                              Ceramium diaphanum v. diaphanum (con ris.)

             8 Ass. Fucetum virsoidis Pignatti 1962

                      Car. ass. Fucus virsoides

                              Enteromorpha flexuosa

                              Schizothrix calcicola

                              Gelidium pusillum

                              Gelidium spathulatum

             9 Ass. Phymatolithetum lenormandii Giaccone 1993.

                      Car. ass. Phymatolithon lenormandii

                              Cruoriella armorica

                              Hildenbrandia rubra

                              Gymnothamnion elegans

             10 Ass. Enteromorphetum compressae (Berner 1931) Giaccone 1993

                      Car. ass. Enteromorpha compressa

                              Callithamnion granulatum

                              Cladophora pellucida

                              Blidingia minima

 

 

Infralitorale e Circalitorale.

Vegetazione fotofila e/o di strato elevato su fondi rocciosi e/o duri.

CLASSE: Cystoseiretea Giaccone 1965

     Car. Class.: Jania rubens

        Lithophyllum incrustans

        Padina pavonica

        Dasycladus vermicularis

        Dictyota fasciola v. repens

        Laurencia obtusa

        Acetabularia acetabulum

        Pseudolithoderma adriaticum

        Erythrocystis montagnei

        Amphiroa rigida

        Liagora viscida

OrdINE: Cystoseiretalia Molinier 1958 emend. Giaccone 1994

              Car. Ord.:       Jania rubens

                        Lithophyllum incrustans

                        Padina pavonica

                        Dasycladus vermicularis

                        Dictyota fasciola v. repens

                        Laurencia obtusa

                        Acetabularia acetabulum

                        Pseudolithoderma adriaticum

                        Erythrocystis montagnei

                        Amphiroa rigida

                        Liagora viscida

 

All. Cystoseirion crinitae Molinier 1958

              Car. All.:        Jania rubens

                        Lithophyllum incrustans

                        Padina pavonica

                        Dasycladus vermicularis

                        Dictyota fasciola v. repens

                        Laurencia obtusa

                        Acetabularia acetabulum

                        Pseudolithoderma adriaticum

                        Erythrocystis montagnei

                        Amphiroa rigida

                        Liagora viscida

 

1 Ass. Cystoseiretum strictae Molinier 1958

                      Car. Ass.:      Cystoseira amentacea v. stricta

                                Feldmannia paradoxa

                     

                      Subass. Cystoseiretosum tamariscifoliae Giaccone 1972

                             Sp. diff.: Cystoseira tamariscifolia

                                     Mesophyllum lichenoides

                                     Saccorhiza polyschides

                                     Phyllariopsis brevipes

                                     Asparagopsis armata

                                     Schyzimenia dubyii

                                     Desmarestia ligulata

                                     Halurus equisetifolius

 

2 Ass. Dasycladetum vermicularis Mayhoub 1976

                      Car. Ass.:      Dasycladus vermicularis

                                Polysiphonia ferulacea

 

3 Ass. Sargassetum vulgaris Mayhoub 1976

                      Car. Ass.:      Sargassum vulgaris

                                S. trichocarpum

 

4 Ass. Cystoseiretum crinitae Molinier 1958

                      Car. Ass.: Cystoseira crinita

                                Sphacelaria cirrosa

                                Stypocaulon scoparium

                                Cladostephus spongiosus f. verticillatus

                                Anadyomene stellata

                     

                      Subass. Alsidietosum helmintochortonis Molinier 1958

                             Sp. diff.: Alsidium helmintochorton

                      Subass. Cystoseiretosum compressae Molinier 1958

                             Sp. diff.: Cystoseira compressa

                      Subass. Stypocauletosum scoparii Boudouresque 1971

                             Sp. diff.: Stypocaulon scoparium

                      Subass. Halopitetosum incurva Boudouresque 1971

                             Sp. diff.: Halopitys incurva

                                     Dipterosiphonia rigens

Subass. Gelidietosum spinosi hystricis Marino, Di Martino e Giaccone 1999

Sp. diff.: Gelidium spinosum v. hystrix

 

5 Ass. Cystoseiretum barbatae Pignatti 1962

                      Car. Ass.: Cystoseira barbata

                                Halymenia floresia

                                Gracilaria bursa-pastoris

                                Hypnea musciformis

                                Nemastoma dichotoma

                                Ceramium diaphanum v. diaphanum

                                C. diaphanum v. strictum

                                C. diaphanum v. lophophorum

                                Bonnemaisonia asparagoides

 

6 Ass. Trichosoletum myurae Mayhoub 1976

                      Car. Ass:        Liagora farinosa

                                Trichosolen myura

                                Hydroclathrus clathratus

 

7 Ass. Herposiphonio-Corallinetum elongatae Ballesteros 1988

                      Car. Ass.:       Herposiphonia secunda f. tenella

                                Corallina elongata

 

8 Ass. Cystoseiretum sauvageauanae Giaccone 1994.

                      Car. Ass.:    Cystoseira sauvageauana

                                C. schiffneri f. tenuiramosa

                                Stilophora rhizodes

 

9 Ass. Chaetomorpho-Valonietum aegagropilae Giaccone 1974.

                      Car. Ass.: Valonia aegagropila

                                Chaetomorpha linum

 

10 Ass. Gracilariopsetum longissimae Giaccone 1974.

                      Car. Ass.: Gracilariopsis longissima

 

11 Ass. Cladophoro-Rytiphloeetum tinctoriae Giaccone 1994.

                      Car. Ass.: Cladophora echinus

                                Rytiphloea tinctoria

 

12 Ass. Myrionemo-Giraudietum sphacelarioidis Van der Ben 1971

        (nel Posidonietum oceanicae Molinier 1958)

        Car. ass.: Myrionema orbiculare

                 Giraudia sphacelarioides

                 Cladosiphon cylindricus

                 C. irregularis

                 Miriactula gracilis

                 Chondria mairei

                 Spermothamnion flabellatum.

 

13 Ass Microdictyetum tenuii Giaccone & Di Martino 1995

        (nel Caulerpetum racemosae Giaccone & Di Martino 1995)

        car. ass.: Microdictyon tenuius

                 Champia parvula

                 Halodictyon mirabile

                 Lejolisia mediterranea.

 

14 Ass Laurencietum microcladiae Giaccone & Di Martino1995

        (nel Caulerpetum taxifoliae mexicanae Giaccone & Di Martino

1995)

        car. ass.: Laurencia microcladia

                 Aglaothamnion byssoides

                 Crouania attenuata.

 

15 Ass Acrothamnietum preissii Di Martino & Giaccone1997

(nel Caulerpetum taxifoliae taxifoliae Di Martino & Giaccone 1997 e nel Caulerpetum proliferae Giaccone & Di Martino 1997)

        car. ass.: Acrothamnion preissii

                 Womersleyella setacea.

 

 

All. Sargassion hornschuchii Giaccone 1973

               Car. All.: Sargassum hornschuchii

                        Codium bursa

                        Spatoglossum solieri

                        Zanardinia prototypus

                        Zonaria tournefortii

 

               16 Ass. Cystoseiretum spinosae Giaccone 1973

                      Car. Ass.:      Cystoseira spinosa

                                C. schiffneri v. latiramosa

                                Valonia macrophysa

                                Halopteris filicina

                                Dictyota dichotoma v. intricata

              

               17 Ass. Cystoseiretum zosteroidis Giaccone 1973

                      Car. Ass.: Cystoseira zosteroides

                                Arthrocladia villosa

                                Sporochnus pedunculatus

                                Polysiphonia foeniculacea

 

                      Subass. Laminarietosum rodriguezii Giaccone 1973

                             Sp. diff.: Laminaria rodriguezii

 

               18 Ass. Cystoseiretum usneoidis Giaccone 1972

                      Car. Ass.:      Cystoseira usneoides

                                Laminaria ochroleuca

                                Phyllariopsis purpurascens

                                Ulva olivascens

                                Callophyllis laciniata

                                Phyllophora heredia

 

                      Subass. Laminarietosum ochroleucae Giaccone 1994.

                             Sp. diff.: Laminaria  ochroleuca

                                     Lithothamnion philippi

 

               19 Ass. Cystoseiretum dubiae Furnari, Cormaci, Scammacca & Battiato 1977

                      Car. Ass.: Cystoseira dubia

                                Nitophyllum tristromaticum

                                Kallymenia patens

 

Aggruppamenmto a Cystoseira corniculata Giaccone 1968.

                      Car.: Cystoseira corniculata

 

Vegetazione di ambienti alterati su fondi rocciosi e/o duri.

 

Ordine: Ulvetalia Molinier 1958

Car. Ord.: Ulva laetevirens

                    Spermothamnion irregulare

                    Gymnogongrus griffithsiae

 

All. Ulvion laetevirentis Berner 1931

               Car. All.: Ulva laetevirens

                         Spermothamnion irregulare

                         Gymnogongrus griffithsiae

 

               20 Ass. Ulvetum laetevirentis Berner 1931

                      Car. Ass.:       Enteromorpha linza

                                Pterosiphonia parasitica

                                Ulva laetevirens

 

               21 Ass. Pterocladiello-Ulvetum laetevirentis Molinier 1958

                      Car. Ass.:    Pterocladiella capillacea

                                Colpomenia sinuosa

                                Chondracanthus acicularis

                                Nitophyllum punctatum

                                Ulva laetevirens

 

               22 Ass. Dictyopteretum polypodiodis Berner 1931

                      Car. Ass.: Dictyopteris polypodioides

 

               23 Ass. Ceramietum rubri Berner 1931

                      Car. Ass.: Ceramium rubrum

 

               24 Ass. Corallinetum officinalis Berner 1931

                      Car. Ass.: Corallina officinalis

 

 

Vegetazione ad Angiosperme marine su sabbie o fango nel Mesolitorale e nell'Infralitorale.

 

CLASSE: Zosteretea Pignatti 1953

Car. Class.: Zostera noltii

Ordine: Zosteretalia Bèguinot 1941

Car. Ord.: Zostera noltii

 

 

All. Zosterion Braun-Blanquet & Tüxen 1943

               Car. All.: Zostera noltii

 

               25 Ass.: Posidonietum oceanicae Molinier 1958

                      Car. Ass.: Posidonia oceanica

          

               26 Ass. Cymodoceetum nodosae Giaccone e Pignatti 1967

                      Car. Ass.: Cymodocea nodosa

 

               27 Ass. Zosteretum marinae Pignatti 1962

                      Car. Ass.: Zostera marina

 

               28 Ass. Zosteretum noltii Pignatti 1953

                      Car. Ass.: Zostera noltii

 

          Aggruppamento ad Halophila stipulacea Giaccone 1968

                         Car.: Halophila stipulacea

 

Vegetazione a rizofite algali su sabbie e fango nell'Infralitorale e nel Circalitorale.

 

Classe Caulerpetea Giaccone & Di Martino 1997

        Tipo nomenclaturale Caulerpetalia Giaccone & Di Martino 1997

        Car. class.: Caulerpa prolifera e Caulerpa racemosa

 

                 Ordine Caulerpetalia Giaccone & Di Martino 1997

                 Tipo nomenclaturale Caulerpion Giaccone & Di Martino 1997

                 Car. ordine: Caulerpa prolifera e Caulerpa racemosa

 

                         Alleanza Caulerpion Giaccone & Di Martino 1997

                         Tipo nomenclaturale: Caulerpetum racemosae                                                    Giaccone & Di Martino 1995

                         Car. all.:Caulerpa prolifera

                                   Caulerpa racemosa

 

                 1 Ass. Caulerpetum racemosae Giaccone & Di Martino 1995

                         Car. Ass.: Caulerpa racemosa

                 2 Ass. Caulerpetum taxifoliae mexicanae Giaccone & Di Martino 1995

                         Car. Ass.: Caulerpa taxifolia ecad mexicana

                 3 Ass. Caulerpetum scalpelliformis Mayoub 1976 emend                                                                       Giaccone & Di Martino 1995

                         Car. Ass.: Caulerpa scalpelliformis

                                  Schizotrix arenaria

                 4 Ass. Caulerpetum taxifoliae taxifoliae Di Martino & Giaccone 1997

                         Car. Ass.: Caulerpa taxifolia ecad taxifolia

                 5 Ass. Caulerpetum proliferae Di Martino & Giaccone 1997

                         Car. Ass.: Caulerpa prolifera

 

 

Infralitorale e Circalitorale.

Vegetazione sciafila e/o di sottostrato su fondi rocciosi e/o duri.

 

Classe: Lithophylletea Giaccone 1965 emend. Giaccone 1994

Car. Classe:    Lithophyllum stictaeforme

                 Peyssonnelia rubra

                 Peyssonnelia inamoena

                 Rhodymenia ardissonei

 

Ordine: Rhodymenietalia Boudouresque 1971 emend. Giaccone 1994

              Car. Ord.: Botryocladia botryoides

                        Cutleria chilosa

                        Eupogodon planus

                        Mesophyllum lichenoides

                        Nereia filiformis

                        Phyllophora crispa

                        Rhodymenia ardissonei

                        Valonia macrophysa

 

All.: Schotterion nicaeensis Boudouresque & Cinelli 1971 emend. Giaccone 1994

              Car.All.:         Lomentaria clavellosa

                        Cruoria cruoriaeformis

                        Griffithsia flosculosa

                        Lomentaria articulata

 

1 Ass.: Schotteretum nicaeensis Berner 1931

                      Car. Ass.:      Gymnogongrus crenulatus

                                Schottera nicaeensis

 

2 Ass.: Rhodymenietum ardissonei Pignatti 1962

                      Car. Ass.: Chondracanthus acicularis

                                Rhodophyllis divaricata

                                Rhodymenia ardissonei

 

3 Ass.: Pterothamnio-Compsothamnietum thuyoidis Boudouresque,                                             Belsher & Marcot-Coqueugniot 1977

                      Car. Ass.: Compsothamnion thuyoides

                                Pterothamnion crispum.

 

All.: Peyssonnelion squamariae Augier & Boudouresque 1975 emend. Giaccone

1994

              Car. All.:        Botryocladia botryoides

                        Cutleria chilosa

                        Eupogodon planus

                        Mesophyllum lichenoides

                        Nereia filiformis

                        Phyllophora crispa

                        Valonia macrophysa

 

4 Ass.: Flabellio-Peyssonnelietum squamariae Molinier 1958

                      Car. Ass.:      Flabellia petiolata

                                Peyssonnelia squamaria

                                Osmundaria volubilis

 

                         Subass.: Osmundarietosum volubilis Serio & Pizzuto 1992

                             Sp. diff.: Osmundaria volubilis

 

5 Ass.: Halymenietum floresiae Giaccone & Pignatti 1967

                      Car.  Ass.: Alsidium corallinum

                                Boergeseniella fruticulosa

                                Chrysimenia ventricosa

                                Cladophora prolifera

                                Halarachnion ligulatum

                                Halymenia floresia

                                Scinaia furcellata

                                Sphaerococcus coronopifolius

                                Thuretella schousboei

       

6 Ass.: Rhodymenio-Codietum vermilarae Ballesteros 1989

                      Car. Ass.: Aglaothamnion tripinnatum

                                Codium vermilara

                                Rhodymenia ardissonei

                                Spermothamnion flabellatum

 

Ordine: Lithophylletalia Giaccone 1965

              Car. Ord.:  Halimeda tuna

                        Peyssonnelia polymorpha

                        Peyssonnelia rosa-marina

                        Polysiphonia sanguinea

                        Rhodymenia pseudopalmata

 

All.: Lithophyllion stictaeformis Giaccone 1965

              Car. All.:        Halimeda tuna

                        Peyssonnelia polymorpha

                        Peyssonnelia rosa-marina

                        Polysiphonia sanguinea

                        Rhodymenia pseudopalmata

 

7 Ass.: Lithophyllo-Halimedetum tunae Giaccone 1965

                      Car.  Ass.: Halimeda tuna

                                Lithophyllum stictaeforme

 

               8 Ass.: Rodriguezelletum strafforellii Augier & Boudouresque 1975

                      Car. Ass.: Blastophysa rhizopus

                                Ceramium bertholdii

                                Polysiphonia subulifera

                                Rodriguezella pinnata

                                Rodriguezella strafforellii

                                Spermothamnion johannis

                                Sphacelaria plumula

 

               9 Ass.: Phymatholitho-Lithothamnietum corallioidis Giaccone 1965

                      Car. Ass.: Lithothamnion corallioides

                                Phymatholithon calcareum

 

 

 

Nota:

Esiste nel Mediterraneo e nei mari italiani ancora un gruppo poco numeroso di aggruppamenti vegetali che necessitano ulteriori rilevamenti per essere compiutamente caratterizzati al fine di una loro valida descrizione. Non sono qui segnalate alcune associazioni vegetali (studiate dai botanici terrestri) di ambienti salmastri perché non contengono Angiosperme ed alghe marine tra le specie caratteristiche.