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CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN WILDLIFE AND NATURAL HABITATS

Bern, 19 September 1979

PREAMBLE

The Member States of the Council of Europe and the other signatories hereto,

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members;

Considering the wish of the Council of Europe to co-operate with other States in the field of nature conservation;

Recognising that wild flora and fauna constitute an natural heritage of aesthetic, scientific, cultural, recreational, economic and intrinsic value that needs to be preserved and handed on to future generations;

Recognising the essential role played by wild flora and fauna in maintaining biological balances;

Noting that numerous species of wild flora and fauna are being seriously depleted and that some of them are threatened with extinction;

Aware that the conservation of natural habitats is a vital component of the protection and conservation of wild flora and fauna;

Recognising that the conservation of wild flora and fauna should be taken into consideration by the governments in their national goals and programmes, and that international Co-operation should be established to protect migratory species in particular;

Bearing in mind the widespread requests for common action made by governments or by international bodies, in particular the requests expressed by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 1972 and the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe;

Desiring particularly to follow, in the field of wildlife conservation, the recommendations of Resolution No. 2 of the Second European Ministerial Conference on the Environment,

Have agreed as follows:


Chapter 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS


Article 1

1. The aims of this Convention are to conserve wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats, especially those species and habitats whose conservation requires the co-operation of several States, and to promote such co-operation.

2. Particular emphasis is given to endangered and vulnerable species, including endangered and vulnerable migratory species.


Article 2

The Contracting Parties shall take requisite measures to maintain the population of wild flora and fauna at, or adapt it to, a level which corresponds in particular to ecological scientific and cultural requirements, while taking account of economic and recreational requirements and the needs of sub-species, varieties or forms at risk locally.


Article 3

1. Each Contracting Party shall take steps to promote national policies for the conservation of wild flora, wild fauna and natural habitats, with particular attention to endangered and vulnerable species, especially endemic ones, and endangered habitats, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.

2. Each Contracting Party undertakes, in its planning and development policies and in its measures against pollution, to have regard to the conservation of wild flora and fauna.

3. Each Contracting Party shall promote education and disseminate general information on the need to conserve species of wild flora and fauna and their habitats.


Chapter II

PROTECTION OF HABITATS


Article 4

1. Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the conservation of the habitats of the wild flora and fauna species, especially those specified in the Appendices I and II, and the conservation of endangered natural habitats.

2. The Contracting Parties in their planning and development policies shall have regard to the conservation requirements of the areas protected under the preceding paragraph, so as to avoid or minimise as far as possible any deterioration of such areas.

3. The Contracting Parties undertake to give special attention to the protection of areas that are of importance for the migratory species specified in Appendices II and III and which are appropriately situated in relation to migration routes, as wintering, staging, feeding, breeding or moulting areas.

4. The Contracting Parties undertake to coordinate as appropriate their efforts for the protection of the natural habitats referred to in this Article when these are situated in frontier areas.


ChapterIII

PROTECTION OF SPECIES


Article 5

Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the special protection of the wild flora species specified in Appendix I. Deliberate picking, collecting, cutting or uprooting of such plants shall be prohitibed. Each Contracting Party shall, as apropriate, prohibit the possession or sale of these species.



Article 6

Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the special protection of the wild fauna species specified in Appendix II. The following will in particular be prohibited for these species:

a) all forms of deliberate capture and keeping and deliberate killing;

b) the deliberate damage to or destruction of breeding or resting sites;

c) the deliberate disturbance of wild fauna, particularly during the period of breeding, rearing and hibernation, insofar as disturbance would be significant in relation to the objectives of this Convention;

d) the deliberate destruction or taking of eggs from the wild or keeping these eggs even if empty;

e) the possession of and internal trade in these animals, alive or dead, including stuffed animals and any readily recognizable part or derivative thereof, where this would contribute to the effectiveness of the provisions of this Article.


Article 7

1. Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate and necessary legislative and administrative measures to ensure the protection of the wild fauna species specified in Appendix III.

2. Any exploitation of wild fauna specified in Appendix III shall be regulated in order to keep the populations out of danger, taking into account the requirements of Article 2.

3. Measures to be taken shall include:

a) closed seasons and/or other procedures regulating the exploitation;

b) the temporary or local prohibition of exploitation, as appropriate, in order to restore satisfactory population levels;

c) the regulation as appropriate of sale, keeping for safe, transport for sale or offering for sale of live and dead wild animals.


Article 8

In respect of the capture or killing of wild fauna species specified in Appendix III and in cases where, in accordance with Article 9, exceptions are applied to species specified in Appendix II, Contracting Parties shall prohibit the use of all indiscriminate means of capture and killing and the use of all means capable of causing local disappearance of, or serious disturbance to populations of a species, and in particular, the means specified in Appendix IV.


Article 9

1. Each Contracting Party may make exceptions from the provisions of Articles 4, 5, 6, 7 and from the prohibition of the use of the means mentioned in Article 8 provided that there is no other satisfactory solution and that the exception will not be detrimental to the survival of the population concerned:

- for the protection of flora and fauna;

- to prevent serious damage to crops, livestock, forests, fisheries, water and other forms of property;

- in the interests of public health and safety, air safety or other overriding public interests;

- for the purposes of research and education, of repopulation, of reintroduction and for the necessary breeding;

- to permit, under strictly supervised conditions on a selective basis and to a limited extent, the taking, keeping or other judicious exploitation of certain wild animals and plants in small numbers.

2. The Contracting Parties shall report every two years to the Standing Committee on the exceptions made under the preceding paragraph. These reports must specify:

- the populations which are or have been subject to the exceptions and, when practical, the number of specimens involved;

- the means authorised for the killing or capture;

- the conditions of risk and the circumstances of time and.place under which such exceptions were granted;

- the authority empowered to declare that these conditions have been fulfilled, and to take decisions in respect of the means that may be used their limits and the persons instructed to carry them out;

- the controls involved.


Chapter IV

SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR MIGRATORY SPECIES


Article 10

1. The Contracting Parties undertake, in addition to the measures specified in Articles 4, 6, 7 and 8, to co-
ordinate their efforts for the protection of the migratory species specified in Appendices II and III whose range extends into their territories.

2. The Contracting Parties shall take measures to seek to ensure that the closed seasons and/or other procedures regulating the exploitation established under paragraph 3.a of Article 7 are adequate and approximately disposed to meet the requirements of the migratory species specified in Appendix III.


Chapter V

SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS


Article I1
1. In carrying out the provisions of this Convention, the Contracting Parties undertake:

a) to co-operate whenever appropriate and in particular where this would enhance the effectiveness of measures taken under other articles of this Convention;

b) to encourage and co-ordinate research related to the purposes of this Convention.

2. Each Contracting Party undertakes:

a) to encourage the reintroduction of native species of wild flora and fauna when this would contribute to the conservation of an endangered species provided that a study is first made in the light of the experiences of other Contracting Parties to establish that such reintroduction would be effective and acceptable;

b) to strictly control the introduction of non-native species.

3. Each Contracting Party shall inform the Standing Committee of the species receiving complete protection on its territory and not included in Appendices I and II.


Article 12

The Contracting Parties may adopt stricter measures for the conservation of wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats than those provided under this Convention.


Chapter VI

STANDING COMMITTEE


Article 13

1. For the purposes of this Convention, a Standing Committee shall be set up.

2. Any Contracting Party may be represented on the Standing Committee by one or more delegates. Each delegation shall have one vote. Within the areas of its competence the European Economic Community shall exercise its right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of its member States which are Contracting Parties to this Convention; the European Economic Community shall not exercise its right to vote in cases where the member States concerned exercise theirs, and conversely.

3. Any member State of the Council of Europe which is not a Contracting Party to the Convention may be represented on the Committee as an observer.

The Standing Committee may, by unanimous decision, invite any non-member State of the Council of Europe which is not a Contracting Party to the Convention to be represented by an observer at one of its meetings.

Anybody or agency technically qualified in the protection, conservation or management of wild fauna and flora and their habitats, and belonging to one of the following categories;

a) international agencies or bodies, either governmental or non-governmental. and national governmental agencies or bodies;

b) national non-governmental agencies or bodies which have been approved for this purpose by the State in which they are located,

may inform the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, at least three months before the meeting of the Committee, of its wish to be represented at that meeting by observers. They shall be admitted unless, at least one month before the meeting, one-third of the Contracting Parties have informed the Secretary-General of their objection.

4. The Standing Committee shall be convened by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. Its first meeting shall be held within one year of the date of the entry into force of the Convention. It shall subsequently meet at least every two years and whenever a majority of the Contracting Parties so request.

5. A majority of the Contracting Parties shall constitute a quorum for holding a meeting of the Standing Committee.

6. Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the Standing Committee shall draw up its own Rules of Procedure.


Article 14

1. The following Committee shall be responsible for following the application of this Convention. It may in particular:

- keep under review the provisions of this Convention, including its Appendices, and examine any modifications necessary;

- make recommendations to the Contracting Parties concerning measures to be taken for the purposes of this Convention;

- recommend the appropriate measures to keep the public informed about the activities undertaken within the framework of this Convention;

- make recommendations to the Committee of Ministers concerning non-member States of the Council of Europe to be invited to accede to this Convention;

- make any proposal for improving the effectiveness of this Convention, including proposals for the conclusion, with the States which are not Contracting Parties to the Convention, of agreements that would enhance the effective conservation of species or groups of species.

2. In order to discharge its functions, the Standing Committee may, on its own initiative, arrange for meetings of groups of experts.


Article 15

After each meeting, the Standing Committee shall forward to the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe a report on its work and on the functioning of the Convention.


Chapter VII

AMENDMENTS

Article 16

1. Any amendment to the articles of this Convention proposed by a Contracting Party or the Committee of Ministers shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe and forwarded by him at least two months before the meeting of the Standing Committee to the member States of the Council of Europe, to any signatory, to any Contracting Party, to any State invited to sign this Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 19 and to any State invited to accede to it in accordance with the provisions of Article 20.

2. Any amendment proposed in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be examined by the Standing Committee which:

a) for amendments to Articles 1 to 12, shall submit the text adopted by a three-quarters majority of the votes cast of the Contracting Parties for acceptance;

b) for amendments to Articles 13 to 24, shall submit the text adopted by a three-quarters majority of the votes cast to the Committee of Ministers for approval. After its approval, this text shall be forwarded to the Contracting Parties for acceptance .

3. Any amendment shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after all the Contracting Parties have informed the Secretary General that they have accepted it.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2.a and 3 of this Article shall apply to the adoption of new Appendices to this Convention.


Article 17

1. Any amendment to the Appendices of this Convention proposed by a Contracting Party or the Committee of Ministers shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe and forwarded by him at least two months before the meeting of the Standing Committee to the member States of the Council of Europe, to any signatory, to any Contracting Party, to any State invited to sign this Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 19 and to any State invited to it in accordance with the provisions of Article 20.

2. Any amendment proposed in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be examined by the Standing Committee, which may adopt it by a two-
thirds majority of the Contracting Parties. The text adopted shall be forwarded to the Contracting Parties.

3. Three months after its adoption by the Standing Committee and unless one-third of the Contracting Parties have notified objections, any amendment shall enter into force for those Contracting Parties which have not notified objections.


Chapter VIII

SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES


Article 18

1. The Standing Committee shall use its best endeavours to facilitate a friendly settlement of any difficulty to which the execution of this Convention may give rise.

2. Any dispute between Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which has not been settled on the basis of the provisions of the preceding paragraph or by negotiation between the parties concerned shall, unless the said parties agree otherwise, be submitted, at the request of one of them, to arbitration. Each party shall designate an arbitrator and the two arbitrators shall designate a third arbitrator. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of this Article, if one of the parties has not designated its arbitrator within the three months following the request for arbitration, he shall be designated at the request of the other party by the President of the European Court of Human Rights within a further three months' period. The same procedure shall be observed if the arbitrators cannot agree on the choice of the third arbitrator within the three months following the designation of the two first arbitrators.

3. In the event of a dispute between two Contracting Parties one of which is a member State of the European Economic Community, the latter itself being a Contracting Party, the other Contracting Party shall address the request for arbitration both to the member State and to the Community, which jointly, shall notify it, within two months of receipt of the request, whether the member State or the Community, or the member and the Community jointly, shall be party to the dispute. In the absence of such notification within the said time limit, the member State and the Community shall be considered as being one and the same party to the dispute for the purposes of the application of the provisions governing the constitution and procedure of the arbitration tribunal. The same shall apply when the member State and the Community jointly present themselves as party to the dispute.

4. The arbitration tribunal shall draw up its own Rule of Procedure. Its decisions shall be taken by majority vote. Its award shall be final and binding.

5. Each party to the dispute shall bear the expenses of the arbitrator designated by it and the parties shall share equally the expenses of the third arbitrator, as well as other costs entailed by the arbitration.

Chapter IX

FINAL PROVISIONS


Article 19

I. This Convention shall be open for signature by the member States of the Council of Europe and non-member States which have participated in its elaboration and by the European Economic Community.

Up until the date when the Convention enters into force, it shall also be open for signature by any other State so invited by the Committee of Ministers.

The Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

2. The Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of three months after the date on which five States, including at least four member States of the Council of Europe, have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

3 . In respect of any signatory State or the European Economic Community which subsequently express their consent to be bound by it, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of three months after the date of the deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.


Article 20

I . After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, after consulting the Contracting Parties, may invite to accede to the Convention any nonmember State of the Council which, invited to sign in accordance with the provisions of Article 19, has not yet done so, and any other non-
member State.

2. In respect of any acceding State, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of three months after the date of the deposit of the instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.


Article 21

1. Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Convention shall apply.

2. Any Contracting Party may, when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or at any later date, by declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the declaration and for whose international relations it is responsible or on whose behalf it is authorized to give undertakings.

3. Any declaration made under the preceding paragraph may, in respect of any territory mentioned in such declaration, be withdrawn by notification addressed to the Secretary General. Such withdrawal shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of six months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.


Article 22

I . Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, make one or more reservations regarding certain species specified in Appendices I to III and/or, for certain species mentioned in the reservation or reservations, regarding certain means or methods of killing, capture and other exploitation listed in Appendix IV. No reservations of a general nature may be made.

2. Any Contracting Party which extends the application of this Convention to a territory mentioned in the declaration referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 21 may, in respect of the territory concerned, make one or more reservations in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

3. No other reservation may be made.

4. Any Contracting Party which has made a reservation under paragraph 1 and 2 of this Article may wholly or partly withdraw it by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. Such withdrawal shall take effect as from the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.


Article 23

1. Any Contracting Party may, at any time denounce this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.

2. Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiry of a period of six months after the date of the notification by the Secretary General.


Article 24

The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council of Europe, any signatory State, the European Economic Community if a signatory of this Convention and any Contracting Party of:

a) any signature;

b) the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;

c) any date of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Articles 19 and 20;

d) any information forwarded under the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 13;

e) any report established in pursuance of the provisions of Article 15;

f) any amendment or any new Appendix adopted in accordance with Articles 16 and 17 and the date on which the amendment or new Appendix comes into force;

g) any declaration made under the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 21;

h) any reservation made under the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 22;

i) the withdrawal of any reservation carried out under the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 22;

j) any notification made under the provisions of Article 23 and the date on which the denunciation takes effect.

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.

Done at Bern, this 19th day of September 1979, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to any signatory State, to the European Economic Community if a signatory and to any State invited to sign this Convention or to accede thereto.


APPENDIX I

Strictly protected flora species

PTERIDOPHYTA

ASPIDIACEAE

Diplazium caudatum (Cav.) Jermy

PTERIDACEAE
Pteris serrulata Forssk.

GYMNOSPERMAE

PlNACEAE
Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei

ANGIOSPERMAE

ALISMATACEAE
Alisma wahlenbergii (O.R. Holmberg) Juzepezuk

BERBERIDACEAE
Gymnospermium altaicum (Pallas) Spach

BORAGINACEAE
Anchusa crispa Viv.
Myosotis rehsTeneri Wartm.
Omphalodes littoralis Lehin.
Onosma caespitosum Kotschy
Onosma troodi Kotschy
Solenanthus albanicus (Degen et al.) Degen & Baldacci
Symphytum cycladense Pawl.

CAMPANULACEAE
Campanula sabatia De Not.

CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Arenaria lithops Heywood ex McNeill
Gypsophila papillosa P. Porta
Loeflingia tavaresiana G. Samp.
Silene orphanidis Boiss.
Silene rothmaleri Pinto de Silva
Silene velutina Pourret ex Loisel.

CHENOPODIACEAE
Kochia saxicola Guss.
Salicornia veneta Pignatti & Lausi

CISTACEAE
Tuberaria major (Willk.) Pinto da Silva

COMPOSlTAE
Anacyclus alboranensis
Esteve Chueca & Varo
Anthemis glaberrima (Rech.f) Greuter
Artemisia granatensis Poiss.
Artemisia laciniata Willd.
Aster pyrenaeus Dosf. ex DC.
Aster sibiricus L.
Centaurea balearica J.D. Rodriguez
Centaurea heldreichii Halaosy
Centaurea horrida Badaro
Centaurea kalambakensis Freyn & Sint.
Centaurea lactiflora Halacsy
Centaurea lineresii Lazaro
Centaurea megarensis Halacsy & Hayek
Centaurea niederi Heldr.
Centaurea peucedanifolia Boiss. & Orph.
Centaurea princeps Boiss. & Heldr.
Crepis crocifolia Boiss. & Heldr.
Lamyropsis microcephala (Moris) Dittrich & Greuter
Leontodon siculus (Guss.) Finch & Sell
Logfia neglecta (Soy. Will.) Holub
Senecio alboranicus Maire

CONVOLVULACEAE
Convolvulus argyrothamnos Greuter

CRUCIFERAE
Alyssum akamasicum B.L. Burtt
Alyssum fastigiatum Heywood
Arabis kennedyae Meikle
Biscutella neustriaca Bonnet
Brassica hilarionis Post Brassica macrocarpa Guss
Braya purpurascens (R. Br.) Bunge
Coronopus navasii Pau
Diplotaxis siettiana Maire
Enarthrocarpus pterocarpus DC.
Hutera rupestris P. Porta
Iberis arbuscula Runemark
Ionopsidium acaule (Desf.) Reichenb.
Ptilotrichum pyrenaicum (Lapeyr.) Boiss.
Rhynchosinapis johnstonii (G. Samp.) Heywood
Sisymbrium matritense P.W. Ball & Heywood

EUPHORBIACEAE
Euphorbia ruscinonensis Boiss.

G RAMINEAE
Stipa bavarica Martinovsky & H. Scholz

GROSSULARIACEAE
Ribes sardoum Martelli

HYPERICACEAE
Hypericum aciferum (Greuter) N.K.B. Robson

IRIDACEAE
Crocus cyprius Boiss. & Kotschy
Crocus hartmannianus Holmboe

LABIATAE
Amaracus cordifolium Montr. & Auch.
Micromeria taygetea P.H. Davis
Nepeta sphaciotica P.H. Davis
Phlomis brevibracteata Turrill
Phlomis cypria Post
Salvia crassifolia Sibth. & Smith
Sideritis cypria Post
Thymus camphoratus Hoffmann's & Link
Thymus carnosus Boiss.
Thymus cephalotos L.

LEGUMINOSEAE
Astragalus algarbiensis Coss. ex Bunge
Astragalus aquilinus Anzalone
Astragalus maritimus Moris
Astragalus verrucosus Moris
Cytisus aeolicus Guss. ex Lindi.
Ononis maweana Ball
Oxytropis deflexa (Pallas) DC.

LENTIBULARIACEAE
Pinguicula crystallina Sibth & Smith

LILIACEAE Androcymbium rechingeri Greuter
Chionodoxa lochiae Meikle
Muscari gussonei (Pari.) Tod.
Scilla morrisii Meikle

ORCHIDACEAE
Ophyrys kotschyi Fleisch. & Soo

PAPAVERACEAE
Rupicapnos africana (Lam.) Pomel


PLUMBAGINACEAE
Armeria rouyana Daveau
Limonium paradoxum Pugsley
Limonium recurvum C.E. Salmon

POLYGONACEAE
Rheum rhaponticum L.

PRIMULACEAE
Primula apennina Widmer
Primula egaliksensis Wormsk.

RANUNCULACEAE
Aquilegia cazorlensis Heywood
Aquilegia kitaibelii Schott
Consolida samia P.H. Davis
Delphinium caseyi B.L. Burtt
Ranunculus kykkoensis Miekle
Ranunculus weyleri Mares

RUBIACEAE
Galium litorale Guss.

SCROPHULARIACEAE
Antirrhinum charidemi Lange
Euphrasia marchesetti Wettst. ex Marches.
Linaria algarviana Chav.
Linaria ficalhoana Rouy

SELAGINACEAE
Globularia stygia Orph. ex Boiss.

SOLANACEAE
Atropa baetica Willk.

THYMELAEACEAE
Daphne rodriguezii Texidor

UMBELLIFERAE
Angelica heterocarpa Lloyd
Angelica palustris (Besser) Hoffman
Bupleurum kakiskalac Greuter
Ferula cypria Post
Laserpitium longiradium Boiss.
Oenanthe conioides Lange

VALERIANACEAE
Valeriana longiflora Willk.

VIOLACEAE
Viola hispida Lam.
Viola jaubertiana Mares & Vigineix

APPENDIX 11
Strictly protected fauna species

Mammals

INSECTIVORA
Talpidae
Desmana pyrenaica (Galemys pyrenaicus) MICROCHIROPTERA
all species except
Pipistrellus pipistrellus

RODENTIA

Sciuridae
Citellus citellus
Cricetidae
Cricetus criceus Hystricidae
Hystrix cristata CARNIVORA
Canidae
Canis lupus
Alopex lagopus
Ursidae
all species
Mustelidae
Lutreola (Mustela) lutreola
Lutra lutra
Gulo gulo
Felidae
Lynx pardina (pardellus)
Panthera pardus
Panthera tigris
Odobenidae
Odobenus rosmarus
Phocidae
Monachus monachus
ARTIODACTYLA
Bovidae
Capra aegagrus
Rupicapra rupicapra ornata
Ovibos moschatus
ODONTOCETI
Delphinidae
Delphinus delphis
Tursiops truncatus (tursio)
Phocaenidae
Phocaena phocaena

MYSTACOCETI
Balaenopteridae
Sibbaldus (Balaenoptera) musculus
Megaptera novaengliae (longimana. nodosa)
Balaenidae
Eubalaena glacialis
Balaena mysticetus

Birds

GAVIIFORMES

Gaviidae
all species
PODICIPEDIFORMES
Podicipedidae
Podiceps griseigena Podiceps auritus
Podiceps nigricollis (caspicus)
Podiceps ruficollis

PROCELLARIIFORMES
Hydrobatidae
all species
Procellariidae
Puffinus puffinus Procellaria diomedea

PELECANIFORMES

Phalacrocoracidae
Phalocrocorax pygmaeus

Pelecanidae
all species

CICONIIFORMES

Ardeidae
Ardea purpurea
Casmerodius albus (Egretta alba)

Egretta garzetta Ardeola ralloides Bulbucus (Ardeola) ibis Nycticorax nycticorax Ixobrychus minutus Botaurus stellaris Ciconiidae
all species
Threskiornithidae
all species
Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus ruber

ANSERIFORMES
Anatidae
Cygnus cygnus Cygnus bewickii (columbianus) Anser erythropus Branta leucopsis
Branta ruficollis Tadorna tadorna Tadorna ferruginea Marmaronetta (Anas) angustirostris
Somateria spectabilis Polysticta stelleri Histrionicus histrionicus Bucephala islandica Mergus albellus Oxyura leucocephala

FALCONIFORMES
all species

GRUIFORMES
Turnicidae
Turnix sylvatica
Gruidae
all species
Rallidae
Porzana porzana Porzana pusilla Porzana parva Crex crex
Porphyrio porphyrio Fulica cristata
Ottidae
all species

CHARADRIIFORMES
Charadriidae
Hoplopterus spinosus Charadrius hiaticula Charadrius dubius Charadrius alexandrinus
Charadrius leschenaulti Eudromias morinellus Arenaria interpres
Scolopacidae
Gallinago media Numenius tenuirostris Tringa stagnatilis Tringa ochropus Tringa glareola
Tringa hypoleucos
Tringa cinerea
Calidris. minuta
Calidris temminckii Calidris maritima Calidris alpina Calidris ferruginea
Calidris alba Limicola falcinellus Recurvirostridae
all species
Phalaropodidae
all species
Burhinidae
Burhinus oedicnemus
Glareolidae
all species
Laridae
Pagophila eburnea Larus audouinii Larus melanocephalus
Larus genei Larus minutus
Larus (Xenia) sabini
Chalidonias niger Chlidonias leucopterus Chlidonias hybrida Gelochelidon nilotica
Hydroprogne caspia Sterna hirundo Sterna paradisaea (macrura) Sterna dougallii Sterna albifrons
Sterna sandvicensis
COLUMBIFORMES
Pteroclididae
all species

CUCULIFORMES Cuculidae
Clamator glandarius

STRIGIFORMES
all species

CAPRIMULGIFORMES
Caprimulgidae
all species

APODIFORMES
Apodidae
Apus pallidus Apus melba Apus caffer
CORACIIFORMES
Alcedinidae
Alcedo atthis

Meropidae
Merops apiaster

Coraciidae
Coracias garrulus

Upopidae
Upopa epops

PICIFORMES
all species

PASSERIFORMES

Aludidae
Calandrella brachydactyla Calandrella rufescens Melanocorypha calandra Melanocorypha leucoptera Melanocorypha yeltoniensis Galerida theklae Eremophila alpestris Hirundinidae
all species
Motacillidae
all species
Laniidae
all species
Bombycillidae
Bombycilla garrulus Cinclidae
Cinclus cinclus Troglodytidae
Troglodytes troglodytes Prunellidae
all species
MuscicapidaeTurdinae
Saxicola rubetra Saxicola torquata
Oenanthe oenanthe Oenanthe pleschanka (leucomela) Oenanthe hispanica Oenanthe isabellina Oenanthe leucura Cercotrichas galactotes
Monticola saxatilis Monticola solitarius Phoenicurus ochruros Phoenicurus phoenicurus
Erithacus rubecula Luscinia megarhynchos Luscinia luscinia Luscinia (Cyanosylvia) svecica Tarsiger cyanurus
Sylviinae
all species
Regulinae
all species
Muscicapinae
all species
Timaliinae
Panurus biarmicus Paridae
all species
Sittidae
all species
Certhiidae
all species
Emberizidae
Emberiza citrinella Emberiza leucophala Emberiza cirluce
Emberiza cineracea Emberiza caesia
Emberiza cia
Emberiza schoeniclus
Emberiza melanocephala Emberiza aureola
Emberiza pusilla
Emberiza rustica
Plectrophenax nivalis
Calcarius lapponicus
Fringillidae
Carduelis chloris
Carduelis carduelis
Carduelis spinus
Carduelis flavirostris
Carduelis cannabina
Carduelis f1ammea
Carduelis hornemanni
Serinus citrinella
Serinus serinus
Loxia curvirostra
Loxia pityopsittacus
Loxia leucoptera
Pinicola enucleator
Carpodacus erythrinus
Rhodopechys githaginea
Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Ploceidae
Petronia petronia
Montrifringilla nivalis
Sturnidae
Sturnus unicolor
Sturnus roseus
Oriolidae
Oriolus oriolus
Corvidae
Perisoreus infaustus
Cyanopica cyanus
Nucifraga caryocatactes
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Pyrrhocorax graculus

Reptiles

TESTUDINES
Testudinidae
Testudo hermanni
Testudo graeca
Testudo marginata
Emydidae
Emys orbicularis
Mauremys caspica
Dermochelyidae
Dermochelys coriacea
Cheloniidae
Caretta caretta
Lepidochelys kempii
Chelonia mydas
Eretmochelys imbricata
SAURI A
Gekkonidae
Cyrtodactylus kotschyi
Chamaeleontidae
Chamaeleon chamaeleon
Lacertidae
Algyroides marchi
Lacerta lepida
Lacerta parva
Lacerta simonyi
Lacerta princeps
Lacerta viridis
Podarcis muralis
Podarcis lilfordi
Podarcis sicula
Podarcis filfolensis Scincidae
Ablepharus kitaibelii

OPHIDIA

Colubridae
Coluber hippocrepis
Elaphe situla
Elaphe quatuorlineata
Elaphe longissima
Coronella austriaca

Viperidae
Vipera ursinii
Vipera latasti
Vipera ammodytes
Vipera xanthina
Vipera lebetina
Vipera kaznakovi

Amphibians

CAUDATA
Salamandridae
Salamandra (Mertensiella) luschani
Salamandrina terdigitata
Chioglossa lusitanica
Triturus cristatus
Proteidae
Proteus anguinus

ANURA
Discoglossidae
Bombina variegata
Bombina bombina
Alytes obstetricans
Alytes cisternasii
Pelobatidae
Pelobates cultripes
Pelobates fuscus
Bufonidae
Bufo calamita
Bufo viridis
Hylidae
Hyla arborea
Ranidae
Rana arvalis
Rana dalmatina
Rana latastei

APPENDIX III
Protected fauna species
Mammals

INSECTIVORA

Erinaceidae
Erinaceus europaeus Soricidae
all species

MICROCHIROPTERA

Vespertilionlidae
Pipistrellus pipistrellus

DUPLICIDENTATA
Leporidae
Lepus timidus
Lepus capensis (europaeus)

RODENTIA
Sciuridae
Sciurus vulgaris
Marmota marmota
Castoridae
Castor fiber
Gliridae
all species

Microtidae
Microtus ratticeps (oeconomus)
Microtus nivalis (lebrunii)

CETACEA
all species not mentioned in Appendix II
CARNIVORA
Mustelidae
Meles meles Mustela erminea Mustela nivalis Putorius (Mustela) putorius Martes martes Martes foina Viverridae
all species
Felidae
Felis catus (silvestris) Lynx lynx Phocidae
Phoca vitulina Pusa (Phoca) hispida Pagophilus groenlandicus (Phoca groenlandica) Erignathus barbatus Halichoerus grypus
Cystophora cristata

ARTIODACTYLA
Suidae
Sus scrofa meridionalis
Cervidae
all species
Bovidae
Ovis aries (musimon, ammon) Capra ibex Capra pyrenaica
Rupicapra rupicapra

Birds

all species not included in Appendix II with the exception of: Larus marinus
Larus fuscus
Larus agentatus
Columba pallumbus Passer domesticus Sturnus vulgaris
Garrulus glandarius
Pica pica
Corvus monedula

Corvus frugilegus
Corvus corone (coronet and cornix)

Amphibians

A11 species not included in Appendix II

Reptiles

All species not included in Appendix II

APPENDIX IV

Prohibited means and methods of killing, capture and other forms of exploitation

MAMMALS

Snares
Live animals used as decoys which are blind or mutilated
Tape recorders
Electrical devices capable of killing and stunning
Artificial light sources
Mirrors and other dazzling devices
Devices for illuminating targets
Sighting devices for night shooting comprising an electronic image magnifier or image converter

Explosives 1
1 Except for whale hunting
Nets 2
2 If applied for large scale or non-selective capture or killing.
Traps 2
2 If applied for large scale or non-selective capture or killing.
Poison and poisoned or anaesthetic bait
Gassing or smoking out
Semi-automatic or automatic weapons with a magazine capable of holding more than two rounds of ammunition
Aircraft
Motor vehicles in motion

BIRDS

Snares 3
3 Except Lagopus north of latitude 58 deg N.
Limes
Hooks
Live birds used as decoys which are blind or mutilated
Tape recorders
Electrical devices capable of killing and stunning
Artificial light sources
Mirrors and other dazzling devices
Devices for illuminating targets
Sighting devices for night shooting comprising an electronic image magnifier or image converter
Explosives
Nets
Traps
Poison and poisoned or anaesthetic bait Semi-automatic or automatic weapons with a magazine capable of holding more than two rounds of ammunition
Aircraft
Motor vehicles in motion